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Russia (officially the Russian Federation), is a country in northern Eurasia (Europe and Asia together). It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning 11 time zones, and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources, and is considered an energy superpower. It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's unfrozen fresh water. Russia contains 23 World Heritage Sites, 40 UNESCO Biosphere reserves, 40 National Parks and 101 nature reserves.


Geography
Russia is the largest country in the world with total area of 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), covering more than an eighth of the Earths land area. 
Russian has a very diverse geography.
Northern Russian extends into the Arctic Circle. This area is primarily tundra and forests, with thousands of lakes. Russia has many mountain areas. The Ural mountains cover 2,500 miles of eastern Russia. The Caucasus mountains cross the southern part of Russia, from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. From the western boarder to the Ural mountains is the North European Plain. This is a large rolling plain with rich soil and grasslands.
Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, most ancient and most capacious freshwater lake. Baikal alone contains over one fifth of the world's fresh surface water. Other major lakes include Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega, two largest lakes in Europe. Of Russia's 100,000 rivers, the Volga is the most famous—not only because it is the longest river in Europe but also because of its major role in Russian history. Russia has a wide natural resource base unmatched by any other country, including major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, timber, ores and mineral resources.

Russia shares borders with the following countries: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (via Kaliningrad Oblast), Poland (via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan (by the Sea of Okhotsk) and the United States (by the Bering Strait).

Climate
The climate of Russia varies from the steppes in the south and coastal on the north-west through humid continental in much of European Russia; sub arctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north and monsoon on the Far East. The average temperatures of January vary from 0 to -50°C, July - from 1 to 25°C.
Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons — winter and summer; spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low temperatures and extremely high. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot and humid, even in Siberia. A small part of Black Sea coast around Sochi has a subtropical climate. The continental interiors are the driest areas.

Population
The Russian Federation is a diverse, multi-ethnic society, home to as many as 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. . Most of the population are Russians (79.8%), with more than 100 other nationalities (Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%). Population is densest in European Russia, near the Ural Mountains, and in southwest Siberia. According to preliminary estimates, the resident population of the Russian Federation on 1 January 2009 was 141,903,979 people.
73% of the population lives in urban areas. As of the 2002 Census, the two largest cities in Russia are Moscow (10 million inhabitants) and Saint Petersburg (4 million). Eleven other cities have between one and two million inhabitants: Chelyabinsk, Kazan, Novosibirsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Omsk, Perm, Rostov-on-Don, Samara, Ufa, Volgograd, and Yekaterinburg.

Language
Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to make their native language co-official next to Russian. Russian belongs to the Indo-European language family and is one of the living members of the East Slavic languages; the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.

Religion
Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in Russia. According to a poll by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center, 63% of respondents considered themselves Russian Orthodox, 6% of respondents considered themselves Muslim and less than 1% considered themselves either Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant or Jewish. Another 12% said they believe in God, but did not practice any religion, and 16% said they are non-believers.

Currency
Rubles are the only currency legally allowed to be used for cash payments - dollars or any other major currency can be exchanged easily at the hotels, banks and at the exchange booths on every street corner in major cities. Many hotels and increasing numbers of shops and stores accept credit cards.

 

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Яндекс.Метрика ООО "АЛЬПЫ АДРИА ТРАВЭЛ" Москва, ул. Марксистская 1, корп. 1, офис 43-44
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